History Facts: How Persia became ‘Iran’

History Facts:

How Persia became ‘Iran’

How Persia became” Iran”, forfeiting its rich cultural birthright

In 1935 the Iranian government requested those countries which it had diplomatic relations with, to call Persia “Iran,” which is the name of the country in Persian. The suggestion for the change is said to have come from the Iranian ambassador to Germany, who came under the influence of the Nazis.

Persia or Iran, Persian or Farsi
Ehsan Yarshater

IRANIAN STUDIES, VOL. XXII, No.1, 1989

hitler-muftiIn 1935 the Persian government requested countries with which it had diplomatic relations to call Persia Iran, which is the name of the country in Persian. This was a grievous error based on a misdirected sense of nationalism. The suggestion for the change is said to have come from the Persian ambassador to Germany, who came under the influence of the Nazis. At the time Germany was in the grip of racial fever and cultivated good relations with nations of Aryan blood.

It is said that some German friends of the ambassador persuaded him that, as with the advent of Reza Shah Persia had turned a new leaf in its history and had freed itself from the pernicious influences of Britain and Russia, whose interventions in Persian affairs had practically crippled the country under the Qajars, it was only fitting that the country be called by its own name, Iran. This would not only signal a new beginning and bring home to the world the new era in Persian history, but would also signify the Aryan race of its population, as Iran is a cognate of Aryan and derived from it.

Hitlerjugend.svgFlattered by this view, the government fell into the trap. The Persian Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent out a circular to all foreign embassies in Tehran, requesting that the country thenceforth be called Iran. Diplomatic courtesy obliged, and by and by the name Iran began to appear in official correspondence and news items.
At first Iran sounded alien, and many failed to recognize its connection with Persia. Some thought that it was perhaps one of the new countries like Iraq and Jordan carved out of the ruins of the Ottoman Empire, or a country in Africa or Southeast Asia that had just been granted independence; and not a few confused it with Iraq, itself a recent entity. In this way the new name not only failed to convey the racial affinity of Iran with the West let alone the imagined benefits that might result from such an affinity but also, ironically, Iran was taken by most to refer to an Arab or Arabic-speaking country. As time passed and as a number of events, like the Allied invasion of the country in 1941 and the nationalization of the oil industry under Mosaddeq, put the country in the headlines, the name Iran became generally accepted, and Persia fell into comparative disuse, though more slowly in Britain than in the United States.

Who was Cyrus?

cyrus-of-bible               The adoption of the name Iran no doubt undermined the countries cultural reputation and dealt a severe blow to its long-term interests. To educated people everywhere the name Persia is associated with a number of pleasing notions that in the main emphasize the countries cultural heritage. One speaks of Persian art, Persian literature, Persian carpets, Persian miniatures, Persian mosques and Persian gardens, all of which attest to a general refinement of taste and culture. It is true that Persia also brings to the Western mind the Persian wars with Greece, and the home of an absolute monarchy that is often contrasted to Greek democracy; but even then Persia does not evoke the image of a weak or backward country, but rather of a robust and mighty empire.

Its biblical associations are particularly favorable because of Cyrus freeing the Jews from their Babylonian captivity and his assistance in the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem.

Iran, on the other hand, possesses none of these associations. It is a barren word in languages other than Persian, denoting a country without a past or a distinctive culture. In an era in which all countries spend vast resources on presenting favorable images before the world, Persia, on the contrary, has seen to it that it is deprived of all recognition of its rich history.

http://www.iran-heritage.org/interestgroups/language-article5.htm

See also:

ISIS and Nazi Germany (Hitler’s Mufti)

https://dinnertopics.wordpress.com/2015/03/13/clear-history-isis-and-nazi-germany/

There are many Iranians in the West who prefer “Persia” and “Persian” as the English names for the country and nationality, similar to the usage of La Perse/persan in French. According to Hooman Majd, the popularity of the term “Persia” among the Persian diaspora stems from the fact that “‘Persia’ connotes a glorious past they would like to be identified with, while ‘Iran’ … says nothing to the world but Islamic fundamentalism.[11]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Name_of_Iran

Accomplishments of Trump: Conservative Leaders send letter—Thank You, President Trump

Accomplishments of Trump:

Conservative Leaders send letter—Thank You, President Trump

It is Faith and Family, not bureaucracy and government, that make America great. We will defend privacy, free speech, free assembly, religious liberty, and the right to keep and bear arms. We support, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States. We believe in the dignity of work, and the sanctity of life.

We believe that children should be taught to love our country, honor our history, and always respect our great American flag. And we live by the words of our great national motto, In God We Trust. President Donald J. Trump, emphasized at every rally

President Trump Rose GardenWith the constant bashing of President Trump by the left-wing media and liberal politicians, it is good to be reminded of the accomplishments his administration has made to advance conservative principles.

I also encourage you to pray for President Trump every day. I’ve never seen such hatred for a president like the kind the media and “progressive” elites have for President Trump. It’s otherworldly, really. If I can use a biblical term, it’s spiritual warfare. While he has his flaws (as we all do), I know he loves our country and has surrounded himself with many fine patriotic Christians who only want to advance freedom and honor God with their actions and decisions. ~Tim Wildmon, President, American Family Association, signer of the letter below

Washington, DC

Dear President Trump,

On behalf of the conservative movement, we would like to thank you for the accomplishments your administration has achieved on behalf of the American people.

From a booming economy, to stronger protections at the border, to implementing strong protections for the unborn, to nominating constitutionalist judges to the federal bench, you have kept your promises to the voters that elected you.

Specifically, we want to applaud you for the following achievements:

  • A booming economy that has unemployment at its lowest level in fifty years, the highest median household income on record, a labor force that has grown by 2.1 million.
  • Poverty rates for African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans at record lows, and unemployment among women is at its lowest level in nearly 70 years.
  • Aggressively working to address the opioid crisis.
  • Signing the Tax Cuts & Jobs Act of 2017 which resulted in more than 6 million American works receiving wage increases, bonuses, and increased benefits.
  • Rolling back nearly 8 regulations for every significant new one and cutting regulatory costs by more than $50 billion.
  • Repealing two particularly onerous regulations: the Obama-era Waters of the U.S. rule, and the Obama-era “Clean Power” Plan, and revoking California’s emissions waiver, all of which cost Americans millions of dollars and thousands of jobs.
  • Withdrawing America from the Paris climate treaty, which saved American families $20,000 a year.
  • Opening up federal lands and offshore areas to fossil fuel development and permitting the pipelines and infrastructure necessary to facilitate further development.
  • Signing the 2019 Executive Order to stop agency abuse of guidance documents.
  • Working to re-negotiate the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement to update the North American Free Trade Agreement and secure a better deal for American workers.
  • Keeping your campaign promise to build a new wall at the southern border.
  • Striking agreements with Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras to help stop our illegal immigration crisis.
  • Taking action to reduce exploitation of our asylum loopholes, ensuring that the asylum process is there for those who truly need it.
  • Increasing cooperation with local law enforcement to enforce immigration laws.
  • Signing the Choice and Accountability Act to update and reform the Veteran’s Administration.
  • Ensuring strong protections of the Second Amendment.
  • A defeated ISIS caliphate and killing of terrorist leaders al-Baghdadi and Qassem Soleimani, both of whom were responsible for the deaths of Americans.
  • Recognizing Israel’s capital as Jerusalem and opening an American Embassy there, as well as recognizing Israel’s sovereignty over the Golan Heights.
  • Withdrawing the United States from the ineffective and dangerous 2015 Iran nuclear deal.
  • Rebuilding America’s military, including instituting a Space Force, and supporting America’s men and women in uniform.
  • Appointing and securing confirmation for 187 federal judges who are strong constitutionalists.
  • Signing the 2017 Executive Order on Protecting Religious Liberty and the 2019 Executive Order protecting free speech on college campuses.
  • Ensuring that faith-based ministries do not have to choose between violating their religious beliefs by complying with Obamacare’s contraceptive mandate, or closing their doors.
  • Establishing a new Conscience and Religious Freedom division at the Department of Health and Human Services to direct the agency’s efforts to protect religious freedom and people of faith in the healthcare industry.
  • Proposing a rule protecting the conscience rights of faith-based adoption providers.
  • Being the first administration to host a meeting at the United Nations on religious freedom.
  • Reinstating the Mexico City Policy to end federal funding of groups that promote or perform abortion overseas.
  • Restricting Title X money from going to organizations that perform, promote, or refer for abortion, while continuing to promote women’s health care by funding organizations who do not.
  • Allowing state Medicaid directors to exclude abortion providers from their Medicaid programs.
  • Ending funding of new medical research using human fetal tissue obtained from elective abortions.
  • Re-issuing guidance stating that hospitals may be required to treat infants born alive after abortions.
  • Opposing efforts at the United Nations to make abortion an international human right.
  • Hiring strong conservatives for important positions within the White House.

 

 

 

We are proud to support the work of your administration and these tremendous achievements.

Sincerely,

The Honorable Edwin Meese III
Attorney General
President Ronald Reagan (1985-1988)
Alfred S. Regnery
Chairman, Conservative Action Project
Chairman, Law Enforcement Legal Defense Fund

See the other 144 conservatives who signed this letter HERE

Trump to enemies-loveAccomplishments of Trump

Trump gives us back our light bulbs
Dec 22, 2019 01:00 am
A hard blow for the nanny-state billionaires and greenie crony capitalists — and a victory for us.

The Under the Radar Progress at the Border

Jan 7, 2020

RUSH: The president’s having successes like these in an election year, and you’re going to be hearing about this as the days and weeks, months unfurl.

 

Court frees president to use military funds for wall

Trump: ‘Construction is ready to start!’

Court frees president to use military funds for wall

Impeachment History Flashback: House Democrats tried to impeach Reagan for Grenada War vs. Communism

Impeachment History Flashback:

House Democrats tried to impeach Reagan for Grenada War vs. Communism

Flashback: When House Democrats tried to impeach Ronald Reagan

Nearly forgotten episode of American history

Ronald ReaganMany House Republicans have argued their Democratic colleagues have presented articles of impeachment against President Trump based not on any crime but largely on differences over policy.

It’s not the first time. On Nov. 11, 1983, seven House Democrats introduced a draft resolution to impeach President Ronald Reagan for “ordering the invasion of Grenada in violation of the Constitution.”

In 2019, Democrats dismiss as “conspiracy theories” allegations of corruption related to Ukraine to affect the 2016 election along with Hunter Biden’s profiting from a corrupt Ukrainian company while his father oversaw Ukraine policy.

In 1983, Democrats apparently had no concern about the threat of another Caribbean island nation falling to communism.

A new Fox Nation documentary, “Reagan’s Fury: Battle for Grenada,” reexamines the invasion of Grenada in 1983, which FoxNews.com noted is an event that is now celebrated by Grenadians as a day of liberation from the oppression of Marxist communism.

“When President Ronald Reagan took office, many Americans viewed communism as basically just another political system that the free world had to deal with and co-exist with,” narrated Fox News’ chief political anchor, Bret Baier.

“But to Reagan, the threat of the Soviet Union and others who spoke of worldwide Marxist revolution could not be ignored,” Baier said. “Which is why he resolved to stand up to the aggression of Moscow and its satellites, leading to the first U.S. combat mission since the Vietnam War. Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada.”

Granada’s democratic government was overthrown and replaced by the one-party, totalitarian rule of Maurice Bishop.

“It was Bishop’s ties to Cuba and the Soviet Union that alarmed President Reagan,” said Baier in the documentary.

Reagan said the Soviet-Cuban militarization of Grenada “can only be seen as power projection into the region.”

Reagan also was concerned about the more than 600 American medical students living at St. George’s University in Grenada.

He approved an invasion of Grenada on Oct. 25, 1983, called Operation Urgent Fury, which was condemned by some internationally and in the U.S.

“The United Nations Security Council passed a resolution, vetoed by the U.S., condemning Urgent Fury as a flagrant violation of international law,” said Baier. “And some of President Reagan’s domestic critics painted him as the villain of the Western Hemisphere. In fact, seven House Democrats even drafted an impeachment resolution.”

danger socialismBut the documentary points out that the view of residents of Grenada was positive at the time and remains that way today.

“I must say that the support of the American government and people at the time after the intervention in Grenada, that was  quite substantial,” said Keith Mitchell, who initially supported Grenada’s Marxist revolution but quickly became disillusioned with it.

Today, Mitchell is the prime minister of Grenada.

“We’ve seen a tremendous transformation in the quality of life of the people since [Operation Urgent Fury],” he said.

“Nothing beats freedom. Freedom is fundamental.”

 

 

https://www.wnd.com/2019/12/flashback-democrats-tried-impeach-ronald-reagan/

Champion of Liberty: Edmund Burke

Dinner Topics for Thursday

Champion of Liberty, Edmund Burke

Edmund Burke quotes

keyThose who don’t know history are destined to repeat it.

‘The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.’

The people never give up their liberties but under some delusion. ~Edmund Burke

From Wikipedia

Edmund Burke 12 January [NS] 1729[1] – 9 July 1797) was an Irish[2][3] statesman born in Dublin; author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who, after moving to England, served for many years in the House of Commons of Great Britain as a member of the Whig party.

Mainly, he is remembered for his support of the cause of the American Revolutionaries, and for his later opposition to the French Revolution. The latter led to his becoming the leading figure within the conservative faction of the Whig party, which he dubbed the “Old Whigs”, in opposition to the pro–French Revolution “New Whigs”, led by Charles James Fox.[4]

Burke was praised by both conservatives and liberals in the nineteenth century.[5] Since the twentieth century, he has generally been viewed as the philosophical founder of conservatism.[6][7]

American War of Independence

EdmundBurke1771Burke expressed his support for the grievances of the American Colonies under the government of King George III and his appointed representatives. On 19 April 1774 Burke made the speech, On American Taxation (published in January 1775), on a motion to repeal the tea duty:

Again and again, revert to your old principles—seek peace and ensue it; leave America, if she has taxable matter in her, to tax herself. I am not here going into the distinctions of rights, nor attempting to mark their boundaries. I do not enter into these metaphysical distinctions; I hate the very sound of them. Leave the Americans as they anciently stood, and these distinctions, born of our unhappy contest, will die along with it. … Be content to bind America by laws of trade; you have always done it. … Do not burthen them with taxes. … But if intemperately, unwisely, fatally, you sophisticate and poison the very source of government by urging subtle deductions, and consequences odious to those you govern, from the unlimited and illimitable nature of supreme sovereignty, you will teach them by these means to call that sovereignty itself in question. … If that sovereignty and their freedom cannot be reconciled, which will they take? They will cast your sovereignty in your face. No body of men will be argued into slavery. Sir, let the gentlemen on the other side … tell me, what one character of liberty the Americans have, and what one brand of slavery they are free from, if they are bound in their property and industry by all the restraints you can imagine on commerce, and at the same time are made pack-horses of every tax you choose to impose, without the least share in granting them. When they bear the burthens of unlimited monopoly, will you bring them to bear the burthens of unlimited revenue too? The Englishman in America will feel that this is slavery; that it is legal slavery, will be no compensation either to his feelings or to his understandings.[48]

On 22 March 1775, in the House of Commons, Burke delivered a speech (published during May 1775) on reconciliation with America. Burke appealed for peace as preferable to civil war and reminded the House of America’s growing population, its industry, and its wealth. He warned against the notion that the Americans would back down in the face of force, since the Americans were descended largely from Englishmen:

… the people of the colonies are descendants of Englishmen. … They are therefore not only devoted to liberty, but to liberty according to English ideas and on English principles. The people are Protestants … a persuasion not only favourable to liberty, but built upon it. … My hold of the colonies is in the close affection which grows from common names, from kindred blood, from similar privileges, and equal protection. These are ties which, though light as air, are as strong as links of iron. Let the colonies always keep the idea of their civil rights associated with your government—they will cling and grapple to you, and no force under heaven will be of power to tear them from their allegiance. But let it be once understood that your government may be one thing and their privileges another, that these two things may exist without any mutual relation—the cement is gone, the cohesion is loosened, and everything hastens to decay and dissolution.

As long as you have the wisdom to keep the sovereign authority of this country as the sanctuary of liberty, the sacred temple consecrated to our common faith, wherever the chosen race and sons of England worship freedom, they will turn their faces towards you. The more they multiply, the more friends you will have; the more ardently they love liberty, the more perfect will be their obedience. Slavery they can have anywhere. It is a weed that grows in every soil. They may have it from Spain, they may have it from Prussia. But, until you become lost to all feeling of your true interest and your natural dignity, freedom they can have from none but you.[49]

Burke prized peace with America above all else, pleading with the House of Commons to remember that the interest and money received off of the American colonies was far more attractive than any sense of putting the colonists in their place:

The proposition is peace. Not peace through the medium of war, not peace to be hunted through the labyrinth of intricate and endless negotiations, not peace to arise out of universal discord…it is simple peace, sought in its natural course and in its ordinary haunts. It is peace sought in the spirit of peace, and laid in principles purely pacific.[50]

Burke wasn’t simply promoting peace to Parliament; rather, he stepped forward with four reasons against using force, carefully reasoned. He laid out his objections in an orderly manner, focusing on one before moving to the next. His first concern was that the use of force would have to be temporary, and that the uprisings and objections to British governance in America would not be. Second, Burke worried about the uncertainty surrounding whether Britain would win a conflict in America. “An armament”, Burke wisely says, “is not a victory”.[51] Third, Burke brought up the issue of impairment; it would do the British Government no good to engage in a scorched earth war and have the object they desired (America) become damaged or even useless. The American colonists could always delve back into the mountains, but the land they left behind would most likely be unusual, whether by incident or design. The fourth and final reason to avoid the use of force was experience; the British had never attempted to reign back in an unruly colony by force, and they didn’t know if it could be done, let alone accomplished thousands of miles away from home.[51] Not only were all of these concerns reasonable, but some turned out to be prophetic—the American colonists did not surrender, even when things looked extremely bleak, and the British were ultimately unsuccessful in their attempts to win a war fought on American soil.

It wasn’t temporary force, uncertainty, impairment, or even experience that Burke cited as the number one reason for avoiding war with the American colonies, however; it was the character of the American people themselves:

In this character of Americans, a love of freedom is the predominating feature which marks and distinguishes the whole…this fierce spirit of liberty is stronger in the English colonies, probably, than in any other people of the earth…[the] men [are] acute, inquisitive, dextrous, prompt in attack, ready in defense, full of resources…”.[51] Burke concludes with another plea for peace, and a prayer that Britain might avoid actions which, in Burke’s words, “may bring on the destruction of this Empire”.[51]

Burke proposed six resolutions to settle the American conflict peacefully:

  1. Allow the American colonists to elect their own representative, thus settling the dispute about taxation without representation;
  2. Acknowledge this wrong and apologize for grievances cause;
  3. Procure an efficient manner of choosing and sending these delegates;
  4. Set up a General Assembly in America itself, with powers to regulate taxes;
  5. Stop gathering taxes by imposition (or law), and start gathering them only when they are needed; and
  6. Grant needed aid to the colonies.[51]

The effect of these resolutions, had they been passed, can never be known. Unfortunately, this speech was given less than a month before the explosive conflict at Concord and Lexington,[52] and as these resolutions were not passed, little was done that would help to dissuade conflict.

One of the reasons this speech was greatly admired was the passage on Lord Bathurst (1684–1775). Burke imagines an angel in 1704 prophesying to Bathurst the future greatness of England and also of America: “Young man, There is America—which at this day serves little more than to amuse you with stories of savage men, and uncouth manners; yet shall, before you taste of death, shew itself equal to the whole of that commerce which now attracts the envy of the world”.[53] Samuel Johnson was so irritated at hearing it continually praised, that he made a parody of it, where the devil appears to a young Whig and predicts that in short time, Whiggism will poison even the paradise of America.[53]

The administration of Lord North (1770–1782) tried to defeat the colonist rebellion by military force. British and American forces clashed in 1775 and, in 1776, came the American Declaration of Independence. Burke was appalled by celebrations in Britain of the defeat of the Americans at New York and Pennsylvania. He claimed the English national character was being changed by this authoritarianism.[9] Burke wrote: “As to the good people of England, they seem to partake every day more and more of the Character of that administration which they have been induced to tolerate. I am satisfied, that within a few years there has been a great Change in the National Character. We seem no longer that eager, inquisitive, jealous, fiery people, which we have been formerly”.[54]

Regarding the French Revolution

In January 1790, Burke read Dr. Richard Price‘s sermon of 4 November 1789 entitled, A Discourse on the Love of our Country, to the Revolution Society.[75] That society had been founded to commemorate the Glorious Revolution of 1688. In this sermon Price espoused the philosophy of universal “Rights of Men”. Price argued that love of our country “does not imply any conviction of the superior value of it to other countries, or any particular preference of its laws and constitution of government”.[76] Instead, Price asserted that Englishmen should see themselves “more as citizens of the world than as members of any particular community”.

A debate between Price and Burke ensued that was “the classic moment at which two fundamentally different conceptions of national identity were presented to the English public”.[77] Price claimed that the principles of the Glorious Revolution included “the right to choose our own governors, to cashier them for misconduct, and to frame a government for ourselves”.

Immediately after reading Price’s sermon, Burke wrote a draft of what eventually became, Reflections on the Revolution in France.[78] On 13 February 1790, a notice in the press said that shortly, Burke would publish a pamphlet on the revolution and its British supporters, however he spent the year revising and expanding it. On 1 November he finally published the Reflections and it was an immediate best-seller.[79][80] Priced at five shillings, it was more expensive than most political pamphlets, but by the end of 1790, it had gone through ten printings and sold approximately 17,500 copies. A French translation appeared on 29 November and on 30 November the translator, Pierre-Gaëton Dupont, wrote to Burke saying 2,500 copies had already been sold. The French translation ran to ten printings by June 1791.[81]

Later life

In November 1795, there was a debate in Parliament on the high price of corn and Burke wrote a memorandum to Pitt on the subject. In December Samuel Whitbread MP introduced a bill giving magistrates the power to fix minimum wages and Fox said he would vote for it. This debate probably led Burke to editing his memorandum, as there appeared a notice that Burke would soon publish a letter on the subject to the Secretary of the Board of Agriculture (Arthur Young), but he failed to complete it. These fragments were inserted into the memorandum after his death and published posthumously in 1800 as, Thoughts and Details on Scarcity.[129] In it, Burke expounded “some of the doctrines of political economists bearing upon agriculture as a trade”.[130] Burke criticised policies such as maximum prices and state regulation of wages, and set out what the limits of government should be.

The economist Adam Smith remarked that Burke was “the only man I ever knew who thinks on economic subjects exactly as I do, without any previous communications having passed between us”.[132]

Read more about Edmund Burke

 

Champion of Liberty: Alexander Hamilton

Champion of Liberty: Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton Quotes

keyFor it is a truth, which the experience of all ages has attested, that the people are commonly most in danger when the means of injuring their rights are in the possession of those [toward] whom they entertain the least suspicion. (Federalist Papers, No. 25, p.164)

Every unconstitutional action has usually been justified because it was for a “good cause.” Every illegal transfer of power from one department to another has been excused as “necessary.”

There is a certain enthusiasm in liberty, that makes human nature rise above itself, in acts of bravery and heroism.
Those who stand for nothing fall for anything.

A promise must never be broken.

It’s not tyranny we desire; it’s a just, limited, federal government.
Why has government been instituted at all? Because the passions of man will not conform to the dictates of reason and justice without constraint.
alexanderhamiltonAlexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757 – July 12, 1804) was a founding father of the United States, chief staff aide to General George Washington, one of the most influential interpreters and promoters of the U.S. Constitution, the founder of the nation’s financial system, and the founder of the first political party.

As Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton was the primary author of the economic policies of the George Washington administration, especially the funding of the states’ debts by the Federal government, the establishment of a national bank, a system of tariffs, and friendly trade relations with Britain. He became the leader of the Federalist Party, created largely in support of his views; he was opposed by the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.

Hamilton played a major role in the American Revolutionary War. At the start of the war in 1775, he organized an artillery company and was chosen as its captain. He later became the senior aide to General Washington, the American forces’ commander-in-chief. Washington sent him on numerous important missions to tell generals what Washington wanted. In 1798-99, Hamilton called for mobilization against France after the XYZ Affair and secured an appointment from President John Adams as commander of a new army, which he readied for war. However, the Quasi-War, while hard-fought at sea, was never officially declared and did not involve army action. In the end, Adams found a diplomatic solution which avoided a land war.

Born out of wedlock to a Scottish-French mother and raised in the West Indies, Hamilton was orphaned at about age 11. Recognized for his abilities and talent, he was sponsored by people from his community to go to North America for his education. He attended King’s College (now Columbia University), in colonial New York.[1] After the war, Hamilton was elected to the Congress of the Confederation from New York. He resigned, to practice law, and founded the Bank of New York.

Hamilton was among those dissatisfied with the Articles of Confederation—the first attempt at a national governing document—because it lacked an executive, courts, and taxing powers. He led the Annapolis Convention, which successfully influenced Congress to issue a call for the Philadelphia Convention, in order to create a new constitution. He was an active participant at Philadelphia; and he helped achieve ratification by the thirteen states, by writing 51 of the 85 installments of the The Federalist Papers, which supported the new constitution. To this day, The Federalist Papers are the single most important reference for Constitutional interpretation.[2]

In the new government under President George Washington, Hamilton was appointed the Secretary of the Treasury. An admirer of British political systems, Hamilton was a nationalist, who emphasized strong central government and successfully argued that the implied powers of the Constitution provided the legal authority to fund the national debt, assume states’ debts, and create the government-owned Bank of the United States. These programs were funded primarily by a tariff on imports, and later also by a highly controversial excise tax on whiskey.

Embarrassed when an extra-marital affair became public, Hamilton resigned his Cabinet position in 1795 and returned to the practice of law in New York. He kept his hand in politics and was a powerful influence on the Cabinet of President Adams (1797–1801). Hamilton’s opposition to Adams’ re-election helped cause his defeat in the 1800 election. When in the same contest, Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied for the presidency in the electoral college, Hamilton helped defeat Burr, whom he found unprincipled, and to elect Jefferson despite philosophical differences.

After failing to support Adams, the Federalist Party candidate, Hamilton lost some of his national prominence within the party. Vice President Burr later ran for governor in New York state, but Hamilton’s influence in his home state was strong enough to again prevent a Burr victory. Taking offense at some of Hamilton’s comments, Burr challenged him to a duel and mortally wounded Hamilton, who died the next day.

Constitution and The Federalist Papers

In 1787, Hamilton served as assemblyman from New York County in the New York State Legislature and was the first delegate chosen to the Constitutional Convention. Even though Hamilton had been a leader in calling for a new Constitutional Convention, his direct influence at the Convention itself was quite limited. Governor George Clinton‘s faction in the New York legislature had chosen New York’s other two delegates, John Lansing and Robert Yates, and both of them opposed Hamilton’s goal of a strong national government. Thus, whenever the other two members of the New York delegation were present, they decided New York’s vote; and when they left the convention in protest, Hamilton remained but with no vote, since two representatives were required for any state to cast a vote.

Alexander Hamilton

Legacy

Hamilton’s interpretations of the Constitution set forth in the Federalist Papers remain highly influential, as seen in scholarly studies and court decisions.[144]

From his first days as a cabinet member Hamilton set a precedent by formulating federal programs, writing them as reports, pushing for their approval by arguing for them in person on the floor of the United States Congress, and then implementing them. Hamilton and the other Cabinet members were vital to Washington, as there was no executive branch under the Articles of Confederation, and the Cabinet itself is unmentioned in the Constitution that succeeded it.

Read more:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Hamilton

Judeo-Christian Worldview: The world before Christ—What if Jesus Had Never Been Born?

Judeo-Christian Worldview:

The World before Christ—What if Jesus Had Never Been Born?

The Incredible Impact of Jesus Christ

As bad as things sometimes get, it would be unimaginable if the light of Christ had never been revealed.

Dr. Jerry Newcombe

Christ resurrectedTwenty-five years ago, D. James Kennedy and I came out with a book called, What if Jesus had Never Been Born? It ended up becoming a best-seller.

The message is very simple: Because Jesus was born, look at all these incredible blessings we have throughout the world.

Hospitals, Education

For instance, the Christian church created the phenomenon of the hospital and has created hospitals all over the world. Christianity has inspired some of the world’s greatest music and arts and has expanded education from the elite to the masses – even creating the entity of the university.

Life

Here are just a few examples of Christianity’s influence, fleshed out a bit: Prior to the coming of Christ, human life on this planet was expendable. Even today, in parts of the world where the Gospel of Christ or Christianity has not penetrated, life is exceedingly cheap. Christianity bridged the gap between the Jews—who first received the divine revelation that man was made in God’s image—and the pagans, who attributed little value to human life. Meanwhile, as we in the post-Christian West continue to abandon our Judeo-Christian heritage, life is becoming cheap once again.

In the ancient world, child sacrifice was a common practice. In ancient Rome, babies were often left to die if the father did not want them. Many Christians saved these babies and reared them in the Christian faith and helped turn the tide. Through His church, ultimately Jesus brought an end to infanticide in the Roman world. 

Christianity also helped to cease the gladiatorial contests – where slaves would be forced to fight unto death for the entertainment of the crowds. And Christianity got slavery abolished in the ancient world and then again in the modern world.

Christianity managed to stop the practice in India of widow-burning. Many times a young girl would be married to an older man. When he died, she would be burned to death on his funeral pyre…until the missionaries agitated to put a stop to this. Wherever the Gospel has truly penetrated, the value of human life has greatly increased.

Modern Science

Here’s another example: Christianity and the Bible helped give birth to modern science, beginning in the late Middle Ages. The belief that a rational God had created a rational universe inspired so many scientists to engage in scientific exploration, looking to catalog the laws the Creator had impressed upon His creation.

The early scientists thought of themselves as “thinking God’s thoughts after Him” (in the words of astronomer Johannes Kepler).

The Royal Society in England was the first key scientific group – which is the oldest scientific association still in operation – and it was founded in a Puritan college in the 1660s. I have even filmed an interview at the Royal Society in London (on this very thesis).

Virtually all of the founders of every major branch of science were Bible-believing Christians. We document that in the book with a long list. One of those men, Sir Isaac Newton, was one of the greatest scientists who ever lived – and he was a committed believer who wrote more about the Bible and theology than he did about science.

Religious Freedom

Here’s another example: America as a nation was largely settled and founded by Christians for religious freedom, which they eventually extended to people of other faiths or no faith.

George WashingtonGeorge Washington, the father of our country, said that unless we imitate “the divine author of our blessed religion,” meaning Jesus, we can never hope to be a happy nation.

John Adams noted: “We have no government armed with power capable of contending with human passions unbridled by morality and religion…Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other.”

The essence of America is that our rights come from the Creator, and our government was established on that foundation. As JFK put it in his Inaugural Address, “The rights of man come not from the generous hand of the state, but from the hand of God.”

Trading our Heritage for a Mess of Pottage

In short, we are heirs to a great civilization, thanks in large part to Christianity and the Bible. Yet, like Esau of old who sold his birthright for a single meal, we seem bent on trading our heritage in for a mess of pottage.

What if there were no Jesus? There would be no salvation, no Salvation Army, no Red Cross, no YMCA. Many of the languages set to writing would likely never have been codified since missionaries would have had no motive to do so.

Many of the barbarians the world over would never have been civilized. Cannibalism, human sacrifice, and the abandonment of children would likely still be widely practiced, as they were before Christian influence.

To paraphrase C. S. Lewis, if Jesus had never come, it would be “always winter, but never Christmas.”

 

History of Christmas: Santa Claus Origin Story

History of Christmas:

Santa Claus Origin Story

This Christmas, We Need a Visit from the Real Saint Nicholas

Over the centuries, the Saint Nicholas who led the faithful when a belligerent, anti-Christian government that punished believers has been forgotten.

By Walt Johanson

Saint-NicholasSaint Nicholas was born in the third century, to an affluent family in Patara, a Greek city in the Roman province of Lycia, in modern-day Turkey.

Nicholas was a priest during the reign of Diocletian (reigned 286-305), an emperor who embarked upon a vigorous persecution of Christians in 305. Diocletian was succeeded in the eastern half of the Empire by Galerius (r. 305-311), who continued the persecution, although he issued an edict of toleration before he died.

It was in this era that Nicholas became bishop of Myra. His name, Nikolaos, is Greek for “Victor of the People,” apt for a time when Christians triumphed over the militantly secular authorities of the Roman state.

Being a man of no little wealth but of far from little charity, it was said that on one occasion, Nicholas tossed three bags of gold coins into the home of a man whose three daughters needed dowries if they were not to be forced into prostitution. It is said that this is the origin of the three gold balls that traditionally were hung over the doors to pawnshops. Another trinity-related story connected to Nicholas was that a butcher, wanting to profit from a famine, killed three men (or boys), then pickled and barreled them for sale. Nicholas saw through the crime, prayed, and the three were returned to life.

Nicholas became the patron saint of sailors. One story has him rescuing a sailor who fell from the rigging when he was on a voyage home from studies in Alexandria. Another has him praying for sailors on a vessel in shoal waters, saving them from being wrecked on the rocks.

Fast forward a dozen centuries and the Dutch were the leading seafaring nation of Europe. Despite their militant Calvinism, they seem to have retained a reverence for the patron saint of seamen. He was brought to New Netherland by colonists who continued to celebrate his feast day of December 6, the anniversary of his death.

The Dutch settlers and their English neighbors had an uneasy coexistence, one problem being communication.  The former, it seems, regarded their New England neighbors as being excessively cheap; they would charge a customer for anything, even cheese in a Bay Colony overstocked with cattle when the English Civil War slowed the migration on which farmers relied for profits. The Dutch nickname for the Puritans came across as something like John (Jan) Cheese, which became “Yankees.” And the Dutch name for St. Nicholas came across to the English as Sant Niklas, to become Santa Claus.

The Puritans may have had little inclination to celebrate the saint, but migrants to the later English province of New York were not similarly disposed. It was there that the gift-giving aspect of Santa took root. In Washington Irving’s partially accurate History of New York (1809), Santa arrives on horseback on the evening of December 6. The image proved popular, leaving Clement Clark Moore, a professor of Greek and Hebrew, to write “A Visit from St. Nicholas” for his family at Christmas, 1822. It was published anonymously shortly afterwards. Moore did not acknowledge his authorship until 1837.

The illustrator Thomas Nast, whose caricatures of drunken Irishmen and Boss Tweed appeared in the pages of Harper’s Weekly between the 1860s and 1880s, has Santa giving out presents to Union Army troops at Christmas, 1862. Nast’s pen produced several dozen images of Santa in this time, in the course of which Santa was given a shop for making toys which seems to have become located at the North Pole.

Fifty years after Nast, 1931 color magazine ads for Coca Cola gave us the image of Santa that we have today. In 1939, Rudolph, the Red-Nosed reindeer was given life by ads for Montgomery Ward.

Through a millennium and a half, then, Saint Nicholas has been transformed from a saintly priest of unknown stature, a charitable man who performed miracles. He has become a bearded, jolly old man in a red coat whose seasonal occupation is to seat little kids on his lap in shopping malls, there to encourage the parents to buy more toys than the little ones could ever need. The only known instance of defiance of this job requirement is that by the character portrayed by Edmund Gwenn in Miracle on 34th Street (1947).

Santa is said to make the toys at a shop that must lie atop Arctic Ocean ice at the location where all meridians converge, and the miracle that he performs is to somehow deliver all the toys to good little girls and boys all over the planet at Midnight on Christmas Eve.

Kids eventually discover that there is no Santa Claus, but it seems that recent generations of them retain the belief that, simply by existing, they will have goodies given to them. Their new benefactor is a different bearded old man, Uncle Sam in this instance.

Over the centuries, the Saint Nicholas who led the faithful when a belligerent, anti-Christian government that punished believers has been forgotten. Perhaps now is time for that aspect of his story to receive renewed attention.

 

This Christmas, We Need a Visit from the Real Saint Nicholas

Christmas History Facts, Santa Claus, and St. Nicholas

Christmas History Facts, Santa Claus, and St Nicholas

The true story of Santa Claus begins with Nicholas, who was born during the third century in the village of Patara. At the time the area was Greek and is now on the southern coast of Turkey. His wealthy parents, who raised him to be a devout Christian, died in an epidemic while Nicholas was still young. Obeying Jesus’ words to “sell what you own and give the money to the poor,” Nicholas used his whole inheritance to assist the needy, the sick, and the suffering. He dedicated his life to serving God and was made Bishop of Myra while still a young man. Bishop Nicholas became known throughout the land for his generosity to those in need, his love for children, and his concern for sailors and ships.st-nicholas

Under the Roman Emperor Diocletian, who ruthlessly persecuted Christians, Bishop Nicholas suffered for his faith, was exiled and imprisoned. The prisons were so full of bishops, priests, and deacons, there was no room for the real criminals—murderers, thieves and robbers. After his release, Nicholas attended the Council of Nicaea in AD 325. He died December 6, AD 343 in Myra and was buried in his cathedral church, where a unique relic, called manna, formed in his grave. This liquid substance, said to have healing powers, fostered the growth of devotion to Nicholas. The anniversary of his death became a day of celebration, St. Nicholas Day, December 6th (December 19 on the Julian Calendar).

Through the centuries many stories and legends have been told of St. Nicholas’ life and deeds. These accounts help us understand his extraordinary character and why he is so beloved and revered as protector and helper of those in need.

Origin of setting out stockings

saint-nicholas-childrenOne story tells of a poor man with three daughters. In those days a young woman’s father had to offer prospective husbands something of value—a dowry. The larger the dowry, the better the chance that a young woman would find a good husband. Without a dowry, a woman was unlikely to marry. This poor man’s daughters, without dowries, were therefore destined to be sold into slavery. Mysteriously, on three different occasions, a bag of gold appeared in their home-providing the needed dowries. The bags of gold, tossed through an open window, are said to have landed in stockings or shoes left before the fire to dry. This led to the custom of children hanging stockings or putting out shoes, eagerly awaiting gifts from Saint Nicholas. Sometimes the story is told with gold balls instead of bags of gold. That is why three gold balls, sometimes represented as oranges, are one of the symbols for St. Nicholas. And so St. Nicholas is a gift-giver.

One of the oldest stories showing St. Nicholas as a protector of children takes place long after his death. The townspeople of Myra were celebrating the good saint on the eve of his feast day when a band of Arab pirates from Crete came into the district. They stole treasures from the Church of Saint Nicholas to take away as booty. As they were leaving town, they snatched a young boy, Basilios, to make into a slave. The emir, or ruler, selected Basilios to be his personal cupbearer, as not knowing the language, Basilios would not understand what the king said to those around him. So, for the next year Basilios waited on the king, bringing his wine in a beautiful golden cup. For Basilios’ parents, devastated at the loss of their only child, the year passed slowly, filled with grief. As the next St. Nicholas’ feast day approached, Basilios’ mother would not join in the festivity, as it was now a day of tragedy. However, she was persuaded to have a simple observance at home—with quiet prayers for Basilios’ safekeeping. Meanwhile, as Basilios was fulfilling his tasks serving the emir, he was suddenly whisked up and away. St. Nicholas appeared to the terrified boy, blessed him, and set him down at his home back in Myra. Imagine the joy and wonderment when Basilios amazingly appeared before his parents, still holding the king’s golden cup. This is the first story told of St. Nicholas protecting children—which became his primary role in the West.

Christmas Gift Ideas: Young Adult Literature Relevant to Today, will Strengthen Faith and Family

Judeo-Christian Traditions, Prager U Videos: Amazing History of Christmas

Judeo-Christian Traditions

Prager U Videos:

Amazing History of Christmas

 

How much do you know about Christmas – about its origins and its many beloved traditions? Do you know where the idea of stocking-stuffers comes from? Or how lights found their way onto the Christmas tree? Or why we all have the jolly, red-suited, white-haired image of Santa Claus in our heads? In this video, historian William Federer explores the holiday’s rich and unique history.

 

https://www.prageru.com/video/the-amazing-history-of-christmas/

War on America: American Education Failing, producing Ignorance of History, Socialism-loving Millennials

War on America:

American Education Failing, producing Ignorance of History, Socialism-loving Millennials

An Illustration of the Sad State of American Education

Rush Limbaugh

Mao and StalinTo me, it is a fundamental illustration of one of the problems we’ve got.

A U.K. Telegraph story. It was a survey of kids not in the U.K., here in the United States, between the ages of 16 and 24.

  • Seventy percent had never heard of Mao Tse-tung. Seventy percent had never heard of Mao Tse-tung, age 16 to 24.
  • Forty percent had never heard of Josef Stalin. And there was a third communist, murderous thug that people had not heard of.

I wasn’t surprised. I was saddened by it. It makes perfect sense.

  • The left has taken over public education.
  • They’re weeding out all of the truth.

erasing historyIn fact, if you recall during the Obama administration one of his first original aides had testified, Anita Dunn was her name, and she’s married to the guy that runs one of the big law firms, Perkins Coie. Anita Dunn testified to her admiration for Mao Tse-tung.

Remember when she got in deep doo-doo? She testified to her admiration for Mao Tse-tung in the ability he had to marshal his forces and move his country in the direction he wanted it. Never mind that he murdered 40 million people to do it. Stalin murdered 40 million people to advance his ideas.

ignoranceSo I was at an event yesterday where there were a bunch of kids. And I ran my own personal survey. I ran into 10 of them. They were all high school students, and one of them was in college. I said, “Have you ever heard of Mao Tse-tung?”

“Uhhh, the Tiananmen Square guy, right?”

The Tiananmen Square guy? None of them had heard of Josef Stalin. Not a single one of them had. And this, by the way, is a fairly elite private school. And not a one of them knew who Josef Stalin was and some of them said that Mao Tse-tung was the Tiananmen Square guy. At least they were able to associate Mao Tse-tung with China, but Mao Tse-tung was dead when Tiananmen Square happened.

fake news liesWe have two pillars or two foundational elements that are largely the most influential in creating public opinion.

  • One is the media, and the
  • other is education.

And if public education — and we know this is true — downplaying the truth of communism, why do so many Millennials think socialism is wonderful? Why do so many of them think communists — 70% of American Millennials are fascinated by the idea of socialism, and 30% say communism’s a good idea.

It has to be the result of education. It has to be the result of, talk about Russian meddling, Soviet meddling, just look at the education system.

Related Links

 

An Illustration of the Sad State of American Education