History Heroes: Ronald Reagan and Pope John Paul II crush Communism and Avert Nuclear War

History Heroes:

Ronald Reagan and Pope John Paul II crush Communism and Avert Nuclear War

A Fascinating Friendship Crushed Communism and Averted Nuclear War

Larry Tomczak

 

This story of two great history heroes is an inspiration. Don’t miss it! ~C.D.

Inspired by the supernatural intervention of God both during the Reagan years and in this recent election, may we all rededicate ourselves to praying for our elected officials, our nation and another spiritual awakening during these turbulent times. ~Larry Tomczak

 

“I don’t know what weapons would be used to fight World War III, but IV would be settled with sticks and stones.”   – Albert Einstein

USA TODAY ran this front page headline recently: “World War III: Americans are Thinking About the Unthinkable” [May 3, 2017]. Data from Google searches shows incredible spikes for – you guessed it – “World War III.” And the Doomsday clock is now as close as it’s ever been to midnight.

Not long ago there was a similar situation but it was providentially avoided because of the friendship of two outstanding leaders. Can you guess who they were?

This is the absolutely amazing account of two of history’s greatest leaders and their bond of friendship that changed the world and averted a nuclear nightmare. Both are gone but their story is worthy of reflection in these tense times.

Ronald Reagan was one of America’s greatest presidents and his stature is sorely missed. Think for a moment on his victory margin in the 1984 election of 525 to 13 electoral votes as he won 49 of 50 states!

His opponent,  Walter Mondale, only won his home state of Minnesota and that by 3,761 votes! “The Gipper’s” electoral votes remain the highest total ever received by a presidential candidate. Don’t forget he was 73 – the oldest president in America’s history.

He’s my hero and I treasure the autographed picture of him in my study. Millions draw inspiration from his life and legacy.

Since we are known by our friends, it behooves us to discover who was Reagan’sclosest friend. It may surprise you.

It’s been said there are four types of friends:

  • Just friends – social
  • Rust friends – oldies
  • Trust friends – counselors
  • Must friends – gifts from God

President Reagan had a God-given gift in a person with whom he changed the course of history. And it wasn’t his beloved wife, Nancy, to whom he was married for 52 years. Actor Charlton Heston called this unique relationship, “The greatest love affair in the history of the American presidency.”

Some Simple Clues

My father came from Poland as an immigrant. My mother was Polish as were almost all of our relatives.

We were dyed-in-the-wool Catholics.  I had 12 years of parochial school. My autobiography, “Clap Your Hands,” helped reach a quarter million predominately Catholics and both my father and I had the privilege of ministering the gospel in Poland.

Whether you’re Catholic or not, you’re most likely familiar with the first Polish pope in history who also gained sainthood in the Catholic Parthenon of saints.

This towering figure connected with President Reagan, and today they are recognized together as the principal players in collapsing Communism and averting a nuclear war.

Pope John Paul 2 in Krakow, Poland

Pope John Paul II was born Karol Jozef Wojtyla in 1920 and was athletic, manly and an outspoken advocate for human rights. When Nazis occupied Poland during World War II, he studied in a secret seminary in Kraków, became pope in 1978 and traveled to over 129 countries sharing the message of Jesus Christ.

He stood up to Communism using his influence and moral authority so effectively that he is credited with its fall in Poland and throughout Europe. Lech Walensa, founder of the Solidarity movement and the first post-Communist President of Poland, repeatedly honored John Paul for giving Poles the courage to affect change peacefully, altering the politics of the land.

Even Soviet leader Mikael Gorbachev once said, “The collapse of the Iron Curtain would have been impossible without John Paul II.”  [CBS News Online: “Pope Stared Down Communism in His Homeland – and Won!” (June 30, 2008)].

For years prior to his death, this icon was a prophetic symbol of perseverance under pressure and pain as he never stopped his missionary work while trembling severely with Parkinson’s.

“A Pope and a President”

Paul Kengor, political science professor and author, has just released his amazing book reviewing this little known relationship. It’s subtitle is, “A Pope and a President: John Paul II, Ronald Reagan, and the Extraordinary Untold Story of the 20th Century.”

In a compelling way, Mister Kengor documents the spiritual connection between the Catholic pope and the Protestant president that strengthened each other in confronting the paramount evil of the 20th century: Soviet Communism.

History Patterns

We learn the following:

  • Communism’s demise was not triggered by tearing down the Berlin Wall but Poland’s election and the Pope’s catalytic role.
  • Both men were almost assassinated just weeks apart in 1981; each should have died as they almost bled to death; and, later during personal time in the Vatican, they shared their belief that God spared their lives for a special purpose, to take down atheist Communism.
  • The Soviet Union was on the brink of invading Poland the very day Reagan was shot but with America on full nuclear alert, the highest level of DEFCON, they stopped abruptly to avoid the conflagration of a nuclear war.
  • The CIA allegedly but secretly confirmed Russia’s role in the shooting of the pontiff by Mehmet Agca (whom the pope later visited, forgave and prayed with in prison!).
  • Ronald Reagan specifically identified him as his “best friend” and Nancy as his “closest friend.”

Application Today

Former President George W. Bush once labeled North Korea and Iran as two players in the “axis of evil.” When Mitt Romney ran for president he said Russia was the number one geopolitical foe of America. The threat of all three nations to world peace is an alarming reality today.

People are understandably on edge. Add to the mix the ever-present terrorist activity in our nation and abroad, and we do have a recipe for potential disaster overnight.

 

It’s important to remember the strong prayer emphasis prevalent during the Reagan era as we study the providential hand of God in the friendship of Ronald Reagan and Pope John Paul II. It should motivate us afresh to pray “first of all… for all who are in authority, that we may lead a quiet and peaceful life in all godliness and honesty… ” (1Tim. 2:1-2).

Inspired by the supernatural intervention of God both during the Reagan years and in this recent election, may we all rededicate ourselves to praying for our elected officials, our nation and another spiritual awakening during these turbulent times.

Read more about Polish heroism in the Cold War

How to apply the victories of the Reagan Era in our day

LARRY TOMCZAK
Larry Tomczak is a cultural commentator of 43 yrs, Liberty Counsel public policy advisor, Intercessors for America board member and best-selling author. His new, innovative video/book, BULLSEYE, develops informed influencers in 30 days (see www.bullseyechallenge.com). Click (here) for his “Here’s the Deal” weekly podcast. Follow Larry on Facebook

History Heroes: Haym Salomon

History Heroes:

Haym Salomon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Early life and education

200px-Salomon,_Haym_financier-american-revHaym Salomon (real birth name Chaim Salomon) was born in Leszno (Lissa), Poland in 1740 to a Sephardic Jewish family descended from Spanish and Portuguese Jews who migrated to the Jewish communities of Poland as a result of the Spanish Inquisition of 1492 and remained there for many generations. Although most Jews in Central and Eastern Europe spoke Yiddish (Judeo-German), some have claimed that because Salomon left Poland while still young, he could not read and write Yiddish. In his youth, he studied Hebrew.[2] During his travels in western Europe, he acquired a knowledge of finance and fluency in several other languages, such as German. He returned to Poland in 1770 but left for England two years later in the wake of the Polish partition. In 1775, he immigrated to New York City, where he established himself as a financial broker for merchants engaged in overseas trade.[3][4]

Revolutionary activity

Sympathizing with the Patriot cause, Salomon joined the New York branch of the Sons of Liberty. In September of 1776, he was arrested as a spy. The British pardoned him, but only after requiring him to spend 18 months on a British boat as an interpreter for Hessian mercenaries – German soldiers siding with the British. Salomon used his position to help prisoners of the British escape and encouraged the Hessians to desert the war effort. In 1778 Salomon was arrested again and sentenced to death. Again, he managed to escape, making his way with his family to the rebel capital in Philadelphia.[5]

Financing of the American Revolutionary War

Once resettled, Salomon resumed his activities as a broker. He became the agent to the French consul as well as the paymaster for the French forces in North America. In 1781, he began working extensively with Robert Morris, the newly appointed Superintendent for Finance for the Thirteen Colonies.[6]

From the period of 1781–84, records show Salomon’s fundraising and personal lending helped provide over $650,000 (approximately $16,870,212.74 in 2013 dollars [7]) in financing to George Washington in his war effort. His most meaningful financial contribution, however, came immediately prior to the final revolutionary war battle at Yorktown.[8]

In August 1781, the Continental Army had trapped Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis in the Virginian coastal town of Yorktown. George Washington and the main army and Count de Rochambeau with his French army decided to march from the Hudson Highlands to Yorktown and deliver the final blow. But Washington’s war chest was completely empty, as was that of Congress. Without food, uniforms and supplies, Washington’s troops were close to mutiny.[8] Washington determined that he needed at least $20,000 to finance the campaign. When Morris told him there were no funds and no credit available, Washington gave him a simple but eloquent order: “Send for Haym Salomon”. Salomon raised $20,000, through the sale of bills of exchange, and Washington conducted the Yorktown campaign, which proved to be the final battle of the Revolution.[4]

Salomon negotiated the sale of a majority of the war aid from France and the Dutch Republic, selling bills of exchange to American merchants. Salomon also personally supported various members of the Continental Congress during their stay in Philadelphia, including James Madison and James Wilson. He requested below-market interest rates, and he never asked for repayment.[9]

Salomon is believed to have granted outright bequests to men that he thought were unsung heroes of the revolution who had become impoverished during the war. One example is Bodo Otto, a senior surgeon in the continental army. Otto joined the army at the age of 65 and served for the entire war. Among other things, he established the hospital at Valley Forge, where he often used his own funds to purchase medical supplies. Due to Salomon’s bequest, Otto was able to rebuild his medical practice in Reading, Pennsylvania at war’s end.

The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, ended the Revolutionary War but not the financial problems of the newly established nation. America’s war debt to France was never properly repaid, which was part of the cascade of events leading to the French Revolution.

Jewish community

Salomon was involved in Jewish community affairs, being a member of Congregation Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, and in 1782 made the largest individual contribution towards the construction of its main building. In 1783, Salomon was among the prominent Jews involved in the successful effort to have the Pennsylvania Council of Censors remove the religious test oath required for office-holding under the State Constitution. These test laws were originally written to disenfranchise the Quaker majority (Quakers objected to taking oaths at all), but many were caught up in this anti-democratic ploy. It was Salomon’s old friend Robert Morris, who actually introduced legislation to end the test laws in Pennsylvania. In 1784, Salomon answered anti-Semitic slander in the press by stating: “I am a Jew; it is my own nation; I do not despair that we shall obtain every other privilege that we aspire to enjoy along with our fellow-citizens.”

Death

Haym_Salomon_stampThe financier died suddenly and in poverty on January 8, 1785 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, after contracting tuberculosis in prison. Due to the failure of governments and private lenders to repay the debt incurred by the war, his family was left penniless at his death at age 44.[8] The hundreds of thousands of dollars of Continental debt Solomon bought with his own fortune were worth only about 10 cents on the dollar at the time of his passing.

His obituary in the Independent Gazetteer read, “Thursday, last, expired, after a lingering illness, Mr. Haym Salomon, an eminent broker of this city, was a native of Poland, and of the Hebrew nation. He was remarkable for his skill and integrity in his profession, and for his generous and humane deportment. His remains were yesterday deposited in the burial ground of the synagogue of this city.”

Legacy

The grave-site of Haym Salomon, Mikveh Israel Cemetery is located in the 800-block of Spruce Street in Philadelphia. Though unmarked, there are two plaque memorials. The east wall has a marble tablet that was installed by his great-grandson, William Salomon, and a granite memorial is set inside the cemetery gate. In 1980, the Haym Salomon Lodge #663 of the fraternal organization B’rith Sholom sponsored a memorial in the Mikveh Israel Cemetery on the north side of Spruce Street between 8th and 9th Streets in Philadelphia. A blue ribbon panel and committee, including Robert S. Whitman, Sidney Bruskin and Marvin Abrams, all lodge past presidents; and Philadelphia, PA residents, arranged for the renovation of the walls and walkways of the cemetery. They then arranged for and oversaw the installation of a large, engraved memorial marker of Barre Granite just inside the cemetery gates, inscribed “An American Patriot”. A memorial bronze marker with an American flag was installed by Robert S. Whitman, marking the dedicated space for the American patriot.[10]

More about

Haym Salomon

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haym_Salomon

History Heroes: Immigration Quotes

History Heroes:

Immigration Quotes

reagan2resizeA nation that cannot control its borders is not a nation. ~Ronald Reagan

Any man who says he is an American, but something else also, isn’t an American at all. We have from for but one flag, the American flag . . . We have room for but one language here, and that is the English language . . . and we have room for but one sole loyalty and that is a loyalty to the American people. ~Theodore Roosevelt, 1919

 

Founders’ Wisdom

America’s Founders were joined in purpose: to pursue and protect individual liberty. But due to the left’s decades-long obsession with multiculturalism—because they find every other culture superior to ours—the unique, unified, successful American culture is being replaced by dysfunctional Third World attitudes. ~Rush Limbaugh

jeffersontyrannygovMay not our government be more homogenous, more peaceable, more durable? Suppose 20 millions of republican Americans thrown all of a sudden into France, what would be the condition of that kingdom? If it would be more turbulent, less happy, less strong, we may believe that the addition of a half a million of foreigners to our present numbers would produce a similar effect here. ~Thomas Jefferson, 1787

The United States have already felt the evils of incorporating a large number of foreigners into their national mass. . .it ha served very much to divide the community and to distract our councils. ~Alexander Hamilton, 1802

The safety of a republic depends essentially on  the energy of a common national sentiment; on a uniformity of principles and habits; on the exemption of the citizens from foreign bias, and prejudice; and on that love of country which will almost invariably be found to be closely connected with birth, education, and family.” ~Alexander Hamilton, 1802

alexanderhamiltonForeigners will generally be apt to bring with them attachments. . .The influx of foreigners must, therefore, tend. . .to confound public opinion; to introduce foreign propensities. In the composition of society, the harmony of the ingredients is all-important, and whatever tends to a discordant intermixture must have an injurious tendency. ~Alexander Hamilton

History Heroes: Culture Warrior Phyllis Schlafly vs. Feminism, Abortion

History Heroes:

Culture Warrior Phyllis Schlafly vs. Feminism, Abortion

Phyllis Schlafly (1924-2016)

phyllis-schlaflyFebruary 2017 – Phyllis Schlafly was a lady like no other. Her expansive work purifying and strengthening the nation’s conservative movement since the early 1970s earned her the unofficial title of “First Lady of Conservatism.” Relentlessly, she fought until the end. Even at the age of 92, her death at her home in Ladue, Missouri, on September 5, 2016, came as a grievous shock to many.

Phyllis married Fred Schlafly in 1949 at age 25 after she had earned her B.A. from Washington University in 1944 and her Master’s in Political Science from Harvard University in 1945. She worked her way through college testing ammunition by firing rifles and machine guns.

She was fiercely devoted to her husband, her children, and her role as wife and mother. A master at time management, she was possibly America’s most renowned promoter of the role of full-time homemaker, believing it to carry a high degree of dignity and honor. She and Fred reared their six children in the Roman Catholic faith; she nursed them all and taught them to read before they entered school.

She was catapulted into the public eye in 1964 after she self-published A Choice Not an Echo. With sales eventually reaching more than three million, she revealed in its pages how Republican Party presidential nominees were predetermined by “a few secret kingmakers” just as assuredly as “Paris dressmakers control[led] the length of women’s skirts.”

In 1971, with the sudden emergence of feminism, a gang of women began making their way around the halls of Congress demanding that the Equal Rights Amendment be revived. It had originated in the women’s suffrage era and was introduced into Congress in 1923. For nearly 50 years, it had been buried in committee and forgotten.

The constitutional amendment was soon off the ground again. It passed in the House and within 12 months was ratified by 30 of the required 38 states.

Tackling the ERA


In the meantime, Schlafly analyzed the ERA and read between the lines. She realized that ratification of the amendment would open the door to a host of issues that would prove detrimental to women, the family, and society as a whole: homosexual marriage, tax payer-funded abortion, military drafting of women, abolishment of child support and alimony for women, loss of privacy for both sexes, termination of labor laws that protected women from dangerous workplaces, and a massive increase in federal government powers.

In 1972, she formed an opposition movement called STOP ERA and led the pro-family movement into a 10-year battle. Three presidents, every governor, 98% of the media, Hollywood, and big money supported ERA. Against all odds, Schlafly and STOP ERA led the pro-family movement to victory. The votes needed for ratification were never secured.

“ERA was rejected by the American people,” said Schlafly. “And the big lesson we learn from this is that in the marvelous process of self-government given to us by our founding fathers, it is possible for the people to defeat the entire political and media establishment and to win despite incredible odds.”

afa-donwildmonAFA founder Don Wildmon remembers STOP ERA well. It was in 1977, during Schlafly’s decade-long fight, that he founded AFA, originally the National Federation for Decency.

“She and Chuck Colson are two people who influenced me greatly.” Wildmon told AFA Journal. “I don’t think it’s possible for women today to understand what was happening at that time. It was vicious! She was a fighter, brilliant, and educated. She took on the power structure and won. She killed the ERA singlehandedly – she and her little band of women warriors.”

The secular humanistic determinations she pushed against in the 1970s and ’80s appeared dormant for years but were secretly, slowly slithering through cracks and crevices. Finally rearing their slimy serpent heads, the majority of the ERA goals have been accomplished through separate and individual means in recent years.

A multi-faceted legacy


“Just imagine what would have happened if Schlafly had not fought,” said Wildmon. “We would have had gay marriage decades ago. America is much better because of her.”

abortion3-pro-lifeSchlafly’s children all became professionals in their fields of interest: three lawyers, one physician, one Ph.D. mathematician, and a businesswoman. Schlafly earned her J.D. from Washington University Law School in 1978, and she was later awarded an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters by Washington University in St. Louis. In 1992, her home state of Illinois named her “Mother of the Year.” She authored 19 books over her lifespan and taught millions how to participate in self-government through Eagle Forum, the organization she founded in 1972 and presided over until her death.

Stacy on the Right, Urban Family Talk network’s newest talk radio program, is recorded in the St. Louis, Missouri, area, home of Eagle Forum. (See here.) As a strong conservative growing in influence, Stacy Washington often found herself in the same circles with Schlafly.

“She was a force to be reckoned with,” Washington told AFA Journal, “a truly godly woman possessing the fortitude of a battle tested warrior. Phyllis was blunt, brutally honest, and kind. I found her inspirational in so many ways – her happy nature being chief among them.”

“Phyllis was one of a kind,” said Wildmon. “When God created her, He threw away the mold. You’re not going to get another individual like her. She was tenacious! She didn’t quit.”

phyllis-schlafly-friend-sandy-riosA friend remembers


Sandy Rios (left), AFA director of government affairs and host of Sandy Rios in the Morning responded to AFA Journal.

AFA Journal: What was your relationship with Phyllis Schlafly?
Sandy Rios: I worked with Phyllis behind the scenes for many years. We became friends when I was serving as president of Concerned Women for America from 2001 to 2004.

AFAJ: How much influence did she have on you and what is the primary imprint she has left on you personally?
SR: She had tremendous influence on my life. She was such a beautiful, gracious, well spoken, unflappable, AFAdiscouragement_homebrilliant woman. I never saw her discouraged. And I never saw her ever want to quit. She just kept fighting and fighting and fighting. She had an indomitable spirit.

AFAJ: In addition to her successful take-down of the ERA, what is Schlafly’s most remarkable professional accomplishment?
SR: I would say her greatest lifetime accomplishment was her fight for the unborn. In the 1980s, it was so unpopular and so discouraging to be pro-life. It was then what it is now to be against gay marriage. If you were pro-life, you had cooties; you were dumb, ill-informed, foolish, backwards. You were scorned and ridiculed. Phyllis never gave quarter to any of that. She just stayed the course and continued to speak the truth. She made the case brilliantly whether people wanted to hear it or not.

The other contribution she gave was to the Republican platform. As the ideological leader of the conservative movement, she was intricately woven into the Republican establishment. She attended every Republican convention since 1952. You can lay at Phyllis’s feet the unbelievably strong platform of the Republican Party on the issues of life, marriage, schools, and national defense. They have the most conservative platform ever, and that is because of the work of Phyllis Schlafly.

History Heroes, John Greenleaf Whittier Quotes

History Heroes, John Greenleaf Whittier Quotes

Before me, even as behind, God is, and all is well.

The smile of God is victory.

When faith is lost, when honor dies, the man is dead.
Beauty seen is never lost, God’s colors all are fast.
As a small businessperson, you have no greater leverage than the truth.

John Greenleaf Whittier

 

quotejohngreenleafwhittier1John Greenleaf Whittier (December 17, 1807 – September 7, 1892) was an American Quaker poet and advocate of the abolition of slavery in the United States. Frequently listed as one of the Fireside Poets, he was influenced by the Scottish poet Robert Burns. Whittier is remembered particularly for his anti-slavery writings as well as his book Snow-Bound.

Early life and work

John Greenleaf Whittier was born to John and Abigail (Hussey) at their rural homestead in Haverhill, Massachusetts, on December 17, 1807.[1] His middle name is thought to mean ‘feuillevert’ after his Huguenot forbears.[2] He grew up on the farm in a household with his parents, a brother and two sisters, a maternal aunt and paternal uncle, and a constant flow of visitors and hired hands for the farm. As a boy, it was discovered that Whittier was color-blind when he was unable to see a difference between ripe and unripe strawberries.[3] Their farm was not very profitable and there was only enough money to get by. Whittier himself was not cut out for hard farm labor and suffered from bad health and physical frailty his whole life. Although he received little formal education, he was an avid reader who studied his father’s six books on Quakerism until their teachings became the foundation of his ideology. Whittier was heavily influenced by the doctrines of his religion, particularly its stress on humanitarianism, compassion, and social responsibility.

Whittier was first introduced to poetry by a teacher. His sister sent his first poem, “The Exile’s Departure”, to the Newburyport Free Press without his permission and its editor, William Lloyd Garrison, published it on June 8, 1826.[4] Garrison as well as another local editor encouraged Whittier to attend the recently opened Haverhill Academy. To raise money to attend the school, Whittier became a shoemaker for a time, and a deal was made to pay part of his tuition with food from the family farm.[5] Before his second term, he earned money to cover tuition by serving as a teacher in a one-room schoolhouse in what is now Merrimac, Massachusetts.[6] He attended Haverhill Academy from 1827 to 1828 and completed a high school education in only two terms.

john_greenleaf_whittierGarrison gave Whittier the job of editor of the National Philanthropist, a Boston-based temperance weekly. Shortly after a change in management, Garrison reassigned him as editor of the weekly American Manufacturer in Boston.[7] Whittier became an out-spoken critic of President Andrew Jackson, and by 1830 was editor of the prominent New England Weekly Review in Hartford, Connecticut, the most influential Whig journal in New England. In 1833 he published The Song of the Vermonters, 1779, which he had anonymously inserted in The New England Magazine. The poem was erroneously attributed to Ethan Allen for nearly sixty years.

Abolitionist activity

During the 1830s, Whittier became interested in politics but, after losing a Congressional election at age twenty-five, he suffered a nervous breakdown and returned home. The year 1833 was a turning point for Whittier; he resurrected his correspondence with Garrison, and the passionate abolitionist began to encourage the young Quaker to join his cause.

In 1833, Whittier published the antislavery pamphlet Justice and Expediency,[8] and from there dedicated the next twenty years of his life to the abolitionist cause. The controversial pamphlet destroyed all of his political hopes — as his demand for immediate emancipation alienated both northern businessmen and southern slaveholders — but it also sealed his commitment to a cause that he deemed morally correct and socially necessary. He was a founding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society and signed the Anti-Slavery Declaration of 1833, which he often considered the most significant action of his life.

Whittier’s political skill made him useful as a lobbyist, and his willingness to badger anti-slavery congressional leaders into joining the abolitionist cause was invaluable. From 1835 to 1838, he traveled widely in the North, attending conventions, securing votes, speaking to the public, and lobbying politicians. As he did so, Whittier received his fair share of violent responses, being several times mobbed, stoned, and run out of town. From 1838 to 1840, he was editor of The Pennsylvania Freeman in Philadelphia,[9] one of the leading antislavery papers in the North, formerly known as the National Enquirer. In May 1838, the publication moved its offices to the newly opened Pennsylvania Hall on North Sixth Street, which was shortly after burned by a pro-slavery mob.[10] Whittier also continued to write poetry and nearly all of his poems in this period dealt with the problem of slavery.

By the end of the 1830s, the unity of the abolitionist movement had begun to fracture. Whittier stuck to his belief that moral action apart from political effort was futile. He knew that success required legislative change, not merely moral suasion. This opinion alone engendered a bitter split from Garrison,[citation needed] and Whittier went on to become a founding member of the Liberty Party in 1839.[9] In 1840 he attended the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London.[11] By 1843, he was announcing the triumph of the fledgling party: “Liberty party is no longer an experiment. It is vigorous reality, exerting… a powerful influence”.[12] Whittier also unsuccessfully encouraged Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow to join the party.[13] He took editing jobs with the Middlesex Standard in Lowell, Massachusetts, and the Essex Transcript in Amesbury until 1844.[9] While in Lowell, he met Lucy Larcom, who became a lifelong friend.[14]

In 1845, he began writing his essay “The Black Man” which included an anecdote about John Fountain, a free black who was jailed in Virginia for helping slaves escape. After his release, Fountain went on a speaking tour and thanked Whittier for writing his story.[15]

History Heroes: Winston Churchill

Dinner Topics for Wednesday

Winston Churchill

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

churchillSir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill KGOMCHTDDLFRSRA (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician and Nobel laureate who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the 20th century, Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a writer (as Winston S. Churchill), and an artist. Churchill is the only British Prime Minister to have won the Nobel Prize in Literature since its inception in 1901, and was the first person to be made an honorary citizen of the United States.

Churchill was born into the aristocratic family of the Dukes of Marlborough, a branch of the Spencer family. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer; his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. As a young army officer, he saw action in British India, the Sudan, and the Second Boer War. He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns.

churchill-on-socialismAt the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty as part of Asquith’s Liberal government. During the war, he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign caused his departure from government. He then briefly resumed active army service on the Western Front as commander of the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for Air. In 1921–1922 Churchill served as Secretary of State for the Colonies, then Chancellor of the Exchequer in Baldwin’s Conservative government of 1924–1929, controversially returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy. Also controversial were his opposition to increased home rule for India and his resistance to the 1936 abdication of Edward VIII.

Out of office and politically “in the wilderness” during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in warning about Nazi Germany and in campaigning for rearmament. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister. His steadfast refusal to consider defeat, surrender, or a compromise peace helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult early days of the war when the British Commonwealth and Empire stood alone in its active opposition to Adolf Hitler. Churchill was particularly noted for his speeches and radio broadcasts, which helped inspire the British people. He led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured.

After the Conservative Party lost the 1945 election, he became Leader of the Opposition to the Labour Government. After winning the 1951 election, he again became Prime Minister, before retiring in 1955. Upon his death, Elizabeth II granted him the honour of a state funeral, which saw one of the largest assemblies of world statesmen in history.[1] Named the Greatest Briton of all time in a 2002 poll, Churchill is widely regarded as being among the most influential people in British history, consistently ranking well in opinion polls of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom.

Related Post

Winston Churchill, Ronald Reagan, and President Obama

 

History Heroes: World War 2 Veterans

History Heroes:

World War 2 Veterans

Lest We Forget

By Bret Holt*

world-war2-vets-pacific-theaterNovember 2016 – An old man stops suddenly, transfixed by a photographic mural on a wall of the National Museum of the Pacific War. He looks into the faces of a group of young U.S. soldiers. His grandson watches in silence as tears well up in Gramps’ eyes. Finally after what seems an eternity, the youngster dares to speak.

“Gramps?”

The old soldier snaps back to the present and turns to his grandson, then points toward the mural.

“That’s me,” he whispers.

Saving the stories

 

greatest-generation5-vets-thanks

That story and countless others like it help the NMPW fulfill its mission to “honor the eight million Americans who served in the war against Japan and the more than 100,000 who gave their lives.”

“We want to tell the human side of the story,” Brandon Vinyard told AFA Journal. Vinyard, director of marketing and public relations, believes the museum is unique – telling both American and Japanese stories.

The Fredericksburg, Texas, site is the only museum dedicated exclusively to the Pacific Theater of World War II. It has over 50,000 square feet of exhibit space filled with actual tanks, planes, and ships that were used in the Pacific.

The museum is financially supported by and under management of the Admiral Nimitz Foundation whose mission is in part to “preserve and exhibit the material history of the war in the Pacific-Asiatic Theater during World War II.”

The Nimitz Foundation was established in 1971 to provide development funding for a museum honoring Admiral Chester Nimitz, Fredericksburg’s native son and Commander-in-Chief of Allied Forces, Pacific Ocean Area. Annually, the museum welcomes over 100,000 visitors, including about 15,000 middle and high school students.

Archiving the artifacts


The George H.W. Bush Gallery, the main exhibit space, tells the chronological story of the war in the Pacific.
This gallery features a state-of-the-art 33,000 square foot exhibition housing 40 media installations, approximately 900 artifacts in 97 climate controlled cases, 15 macro artifacts, and hundreds of photographs.

“Here visitors go a hundred years back, before Pearl Harbor…and we’re going to lay the groundwork for why Japan attacked Pearl Harbor,” explained Vinyard. From that point, patrons are taken through the entire period of the war through the Doolittle Raid, the dropping of the atomic bombs, and the final signing of the articles of surrender aboard the U.S.S. Missouri on September 2, 1945.

The Bush Gallery boasts a number of exceptional artifacts including a Hell Cat fighter, a B25 Bomber, and a Stuart tank that was under the command of the Australians. Amazingly, the unrestored Stuart tank, complete with a hole blown through the front and the actual Japanese gun that took out the tank, is on display along with videography of the Japanese tank commander describing the incident.

Another particularly interesting artifact is a real Japanese submarine that ran aground on Oahu at the start of the war. The captain of that submarine became the first WWII prisoner of war taken by U.S. troops. These artifacts are accompanied by state-of-the-art audio and video presentations that provide additional information and context.

An actual door from the U.S.S. Arizona shows an oil stain and a hole cut through it in an attempt to rescue survivors, poignantly reminding visitors of the human side of the conflict.

According to Vinyard, one of many unique artifacts on display is a Japanese Rex Float Plane. Fewer than 89 of these planes were made during the war, and only three remain in existence today. The museum is the only place in the world that has one of these unique aircraft on display.

Honoring the heroes


Over the years, many WWII veterans have visited the museum with their children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. Vinyard said many emails he receives from children of World War II vets describe the impact visiting the museum had on their parents and about how they had never spoken about their service in the past, but now “we can’t get him to shut up about it.”

Vinyard often sees veterans open up and begin sharing their stories as they move through the exhibits.

Another popular component of the museum is the Pacific Combat Zone. This interactive indoor/outdoor exhibit allows guests to experience a taste of what soldiers went through during the war.

vetsweowethemIn October 2015, the museum began construction of a two-phase $8 million renovation. Phase one, now complete, includes a PT 309 Boat exhibit in which visitors step on deck as the boat is being equipped for a mission.

Visitors go below deck on an aircraft carrier and see a TBM preparing for a mission. Interactive games allow guests to launch torpedoes at enemy ships and man anti-aircraft guns. Phase two of this renovation project is scheduled to open in the spring of 2017.

An exhibit that stands in stark contrast to others is the Japanese Garden of Peace. Here, in the midst of a museum dedicated to possibly the greatest military conflict in human history, sits an oasis of peace and tranquility, a gift from the people of Japan to the people of the United States in honor of Admiral Nimitz. Walking along the streams and pools or sitting among the stones, visitors are encouraged to quietly reflect, in whatever manner they choose, on the war and those who fought.

With these vastly diverse components and many more state-of-the-art exhibits, the NMPW portrays the sheer enormity of the war in the Pacific-Asiatic Theater. At the same time, the museum never loses sight of the fact that this grand conflict was fought by millions, each of whom has a unique story that deserves to be told. It was fought by sons, brothers, husbands, and fathers, many of whom never returned home.

Their endless stories are masterfully woven into the larger narrative of the War in the Pacific. Additionally, hundreds of artifacts allow the visitor to travel back in time and view real pieces of history that played a critical role in the war.

soldiersfallenlestweforget2As more and more WWII veterans pass away – 555 every day according to the National WWII Museum – it becomes all the more important to ensure that their stories and their sacrifices are recorded in a way that honors the profoundly significant service they performed for their nation and the world.

In essence, these men and women were called upon to save the world. And they delivered. This remarkable museum in Texas Hill Country just west of Austin is playing a crucial role in assuring that the history of WWII in the Pacific is properly preserved, and that these veterans are remembered with the respect they deserve.

“It’s a place where they feel comfortable,” Vinyard said, “because their story is being told correctly.”

*Bret Holt is administrative assistant at the Chickasaw Inkana Foundation in Tupelo, Mississippi.

____________________
The museum is a premiere research site for any student of history. The Nimitz Education and Research Center was established to share the NMPW’s vast archives. Professional historians and students find NERC to be an invaluable resource.

Highlights of the collection include more than 4,100 oral histories, 700 memoirs, the American Volunteer Group (Flying Tiger) Collection, the LCI association collection, and several personal collections. NERC also holds a library of more than 5,000 books.

History Heroes: John Adams

Dinner Topics for Monday

History Heroes: John Adams

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

johnadams2John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was the second president of the United States (1797–1801),[2] having earlier served as the first vice president of the United States. An American Founding Father,[3] Adams was a statesman, diplomat, and a leading advocate of American independence from Great Britain. Well educated, he was an Enlightenment political theorist who promoted republicanism, as well as a strong central government, and wrote prolifically about his often seminal ideas, both in published works and in letters to his wife and key adviser Abigail Adams, as well as to other Founding Fathers.

Adams came to prominence in the early stages of the American Revolution. A lawyer and public figure in Boston, as a delegate from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress, he played a leading role in persuading Congress to declare independence. He assisted Thomas Jefferson in drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776, and was its primary advocate in the Congress. Later, as a diplomat in Europe, he helped negotiate the eventual peace treaty with Great Britain, and was responsible for obtaining vital governmental loans from Amsterdam bankers. A political theorist and historian, Adams largely wrote the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780, which together with his earlier Thoughts on Government, influenced American political thought. One of his greatest roles was as a judge of character: in 1775, he nominated George Washington to be commander-in-chief, and 25 years later nominated John Marshall to be Chief Justice of the United States.

Adams’ revolutionary credentials secured him two terms as George Washington‘s vice president and his own election in 1796 as the second president. During his one term, he encountered ferocious attacks by the Jeffersonian Republicans, as well as the dominant faction in his own Federalist Party led by his bitter enemy Alexander Hamilton. Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts, and built up the army and navy especially in the face of an undeclared naval war (called the “Quasi-War“) with France, 1798–1800. The major accomplishment of his presidency was his peaceful resolution of the conflict in the face of Hamilton’s opposition.

In 1800, Adams was defeated for re-election by Thomas Jefferson and retired to Massachusetts. He later resumed his friendship with Jefferson. He and his wife founded an accomplished family line of politicians, diplomats, and historians now referred to as the Adams political family. Adams was the father of John Quincy Adams, the sixth President of the United States. His achievements have received greater recognition in modern times, though his contributions were not initially as celebrated as those of other Founders. Adams was the first U.S. president to reside in the executive mansion that eventually became known as the White House.[4]

Career before the Revolution

Opponent of Stamp Act 1765

Adams first rose to prominence as an opponent of the Stamp Act 1765, which was imposed by the British Parliament without consulting the American legislatures. Americans protested vehemently that it violated their traditional rights as Englishmen. Popular resistance, he later observed, was sparked by an oft-reprinted sermon of the Boston minister, Jonathan Mayhew, interpreting Romans 13 to elucidate the principle of just insurrection.[18]

In 1765, Adams drafted the instructions which were sent by the inhabitants of Braintree to its representatives in the Massachusetts legislature, and which served as a model for other towns to draw up instructions to their representatives. In August 1765, he anonymously contributed four notable articles to the Boston Gazette (republished in The London Chronicle in 1768 as True Sentiments of America, also known as A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law). In the letter he suggested that there was a connection between the Protestant ideas that Adams’ Puritan ancestors brought to New England and the ideas behind their resistance to the Stamp Act. In the former he explained that the opposition of the colonies to the Stamp Act was because the Stamp Act deprived the American colonists of two basic rights guaranteed to all Englishmen, and which all free men deserved: rights to be taxed only by consent and to be tried only by a jury of one’s peers.

The “Braintree Instructions” were a succinct and forthright defense of colonial rights and liberties, while the Dissertation was an essay in political education.

In December 1765, he delivered a speech before the governor and council in which he pronounced the Stamp Act invalid on the ground that Massachusetts, being without representation in Parliament, had not assented to it.[19]

Boston Massacre

In 1770, a street confrontation resulted in British soldiers killing five civilians in what became known as the Boston Massacre.[20] The soldiers involved were arrested on criminal charges. Not surprisingly, they had trouble finding legal counsel to represent them. Finally, they asked Adams to organize their defense. He accepted, though he feared it would hurt his reputation. In their defense, Adams made his now famous quote regarding making decisions based on the evidence: “Facts are stubborn things; and whatever may be our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passion, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence.”[21] He also offered a now-famous, detailed defense of Blackstone’s Ratio:

It is more important that innocence be protected than it is that guilt be punished, for guilt and crimes are so frequent in this world that they cannot all be punished.But if innocence itself is brought to the bar and condemned, perhaps to die, then the citizen will say, “whether I do good or whether I do evil is immaterial, for innocence itself is no protection,” and if such an idea as that were to take hold in the mind of the citizen that would be the end of security whatsoever.

Six of the soldiers were acquitted. Two who had fired directly into the crowd were charged with murder but were convicted only of manslaughter. Adams was paid eighteen guineas by the British soldiers, or about the cost of a pair of shoes.[22]

Despite his previous misgivings, Adams was elected to the Massachusetts General Court (the colonial legislature) in June 1770, while still in preparation for the trial.[23]

Constitutional ideas

Declaration_independenceMassachusetts’s new constitution, ratified in 1780 and written largely by Adams himself, structured its government most closely on his views of politics and society.[58] It was the first constitution written by a special committee and ratified by the people. It was also the first to feature a bicameral legislature, a clear and distinct executive with a partial (two-thirds) veto (although he was restrained by an executive council), and a distinct judicial branch.

While in London, Adams published a work entitled A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States (1787).[60] In it he repudiated the views of Turgot and other European writers as to the viciousness of the framework of state governments. Turgot argued that countries that lacked aristocracies needn’t have bicameral legislatures. He thought that republican governments feature “all authorities into one center, that of the nation.”[61] In the book, Adams suggested that “the rich, the well-born and the able” should be set apart from other men in a senate—that would prevent them from dominating the lower house. Wood (2006) has maintained that Adams had become intellectually irrelevant by the time the Federal Constitution was ratified. By then, American political thought, transformed by more than a decade of vigorous and searching debate as well as shaping experiential pressures, had abandoned the classical conception of politics which understood government as a mirror of social estates. Americans’ new conception of popular sovereignty now saw the people-at-large as the sole possessors of power in the realm. All agents of the government enjoyed mere portions of the people’s power and only for a limited time. Adams had completely missed this concept and revealed his continued attachment to the older version of politics.[62][25] Yet Wood overlooks Adams’ peculiar definition of the term “republic,” and his support for a constitution ratified by the people.[63] He also underplays Adams’ belief in checks and balances. “Power must be opposed to power, and interest to interest,” Adams wrote; this sentiment would later be echoed by James Madison‘s famous statement that “[a]mbition must be made to counteract ambition” in The Federalist No. 51, in explaining the powers of the branches of the United States federal government under the new Constitution.[64][65] Adams did as much as anyone to put the idea of “checks and balances” on the intellectual map.

Adams’ Defence can be read as an articulation of the classical republican theory of mixed government. Adams contended that social classes exist in every political society, and that a good government must accept that reality. For centuries, dating back to Aristotle, a mixed regime balancing monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy—that is, the king, the nobles, and the people—was required to preserve order and liberty.[66]

Adams never bought a slave and declined on principle to employ slave labor.[67] Abigail Adams opposed slavery and employed free blacks in preference to her father’s two domestic slaves. John Adams spoke out in 1777 against a bill to emancipate slaves in Massachusetts, saying that the issue was presently too divisive, and so the legislation should “sleep for a time.”[68] He also was against use of black soldiers in the Revolution, due to opposition from southerners.[68] Adams generally tried to keep the issue out of national politics, because of the anticipated southern response.[68][69] Though it is difficult to pinpoint the exact date on which slavery was abolished in Massachusetts, a common view is that it was abolished no later than 1780, when it was forbidden by implication in the Declaration of Rights that John Adams wrote into the Massachusetts Constitution.[70]

Correspondence with Jefferson

In early 1812, Adams reconciled with Jefferson. Their mutual friend Benjamin Rush, a fellow signer of the Declaration of Independence who had been corresponding with both, encouraged each man to reach out to the other. On New Year’s Day 1812, Adams sent a brief, friendly note to Jefferson to accompany the delivery of “two pieces of homespun,” a two-volume collection of lectures on rhetoric by John Quincy Adams. Jefferson replied immediately with a warm, friendly letter, and the two men revived their friendship, which they conducted by mail. The correspondence that they resumed in 1812 lasted the rest of their lives, and thereafter has been hailed as one of their greatest legacies and a monument of American literature.[112]

Their letters are rich in insight into both the period and the minds of the two Presidents and revolutionary leaders. Their correspondence lasted fourteen years, and consisted of 158 letters.[112] It was in these years that the two men discussed “natural aristocracy.” Jefferson said, “The natural aristocracy I consider as the most precious gift of nature for the instruction, the trusts, and government of society. And indeed it would have been inconsistent in creation to have formed man for the social state, and not to have provided virtue and wisdom enough to manage the concerns of society. May we not even say that the form of government is best which provides most effectually for a pure selection of these natural aristoi into the offices of government?”[113] Adams wondered if it ever would be so clear who these people were, “Your distinction between natural and artificial aristocracy does not appear to me well founded. Birth and wealth are conferred on some men as imperiously by nature, as genius, strength, or beauty. . . . When aristocracies are established by human laws and honour, wealth, and power are made hereditary by municipal laws and political institutions, then I acknowledge artificial aristocracy to commence.”[114] It would always be true, Adams argued, that fate would bestow influence on some men for reasons other than true wisdom and virtue. That being the way of nature, he thought such “talents” were natural. A good government, therefore, had to account for that reality.

History Heroes: Dwight D. Eisenhower, Champion of Freedom

History Heroes—

Dwight D. Eisenhower, Champion of Freedom

President Eisenhower predicted Holocaust Deniers, so he ordered pictures be taken of concentration camps!

1389.4 Holocaust BMillions of Jews were systematically exterminated in concentration camps. These are the facts, and yet some still try to deny that the Holocaust ever happened. Whatever their reasoning, they maintain the stories are Nazi propaganda.

Showing great foresight, Dwight Eisenhower made an effort to stop any such attempts. In 1945, he visited one of the concentration camps near Gotha, and was shocked and horrified at what he saw. Though some of the sights made him physically ill, he inspected every part of the camps. He felt that it was his duty to see it all and be able to testify to the truth of the Nazi brutality.

In order to document these horrors and make sure that cynics and doubters would not brush off the evidence as mere Nazi propaganda, he ordered many photographs taken and for the German people from surrounding villages to be ushered through the camps. He also contacted both London and Washington and urged both governments to send a random group of newspaper editors and legislative groups to the camps to document them.

General Dwight D. Eisenhower: “The things I saw beggar description…”

On the outside of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, DC there are four plaques with quotes from four presidents, including President Dwight D. Eisenhower.  The Eisenhower quote is in the most prominent spot and it is, by far, the most famous:

“The things I saw beggar description…The visual evidence and the verbal testimony of starvation, cruelty and bestiality were so overpowering…I made the visit deliberately, in order to be in a position to give first hand evidence of these things if ever, in the future, there develops a tendency to charge these allegations to propaganda.”

1389.4 Holocaust BThis quote was condensed from a paragraph in a letter that General Eisenhower wrote to General George C. Marshall on April 15, 1945.  The letter starts out with Eisenhower outlining his plans for how he will conduct the war in the next few weeks.

You can see a photograph of the second page of the letter here.

On the second page of the letter, in the second paragraph, General Eisenhower wrote the following:

On a recent tour of the forward areas in First and Third Armies, I stopped momentarily at the salt mines to take a look at the German treasure.  There is a lot of it.  But the most interesting — although horrible — sight that I encountered during the trip was a visit to a German internment camp near Gotha. The things I saw beggar description.  While I was touring the camp I encountered three men who had been inmates and by one ruse or another had made their escape.  I interviewed them through an interpreter. The visual evidence and the verbal testimony of starvation, cruelty and bestiality were so overpowering as to leave me a bit sick.  In one room, where they were piled up twenty or thirty naked men, killed by starvation, George Patton would not even enter.  He said he would get sick if he did so I made the visit deliberately, in order to be in position to give first-hand evidence of these things if ever, in the future, there develops the tendency to charge these allegations merely to “propaganda.”

http://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2010/07/03/general-dwight-d-eisenhower-the-things-i-saw-beggar-description/

 

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight_D._Eisenhower,_official_Presidential_portraitDwight DavidIkeEisenhower (pronounced /ˈzənhaʊər/, EYE-zən-how-ər; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He was a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe; he had responsibility for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO.[2] He was the last President to have been born in the 19th century.

Eisenhower was of Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry and was raised in a large family in Kansas by parents with a strong religious background. He attended and graduated from West Point and later married and had two sons. After World War II, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff under President Harry S. Truman then assumed the post of President at Columbia University.[3]

Eisenhower entered the 1952 presidential race as a Republican to counter the non-interventionism of Senator Robert A. Taft and to crusade against “Communism, Korea and corruption”. He won by a landslide, defeating Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson and ending two decades of the New Deal Coalition. In the first year of his presidency, Eisenhower deposed the leader of Iran in the 1953 Iranian coup d’état and used nuclear threats to conclude the Korean War with China. His New Look policy of nuclear deterrence gave priority to inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing the funding for conventional military forces; the goal was to keep pressure on the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. In 1954, Eisenhower first articulated the domino theory in his description of the threat presented to United States’ global economic and military hegemony by the spread of communism and anti-colonial movements in the wake of Communist victory in the First Indochina War. The Congress agreed to his request in 1955 for the Formosa Resolution, which obliged the US to militarily support the pro-Western Republic of China in Taiwan and take a hostile position against the People’s Republic of China on the Chinese mainland. After the Soviet Union launched the world’s first artificial satellite in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA which led to a “space race“. Eisenhower forced Israel, the UK, and France to end their invasion of Egypt during the Suez Crisis of 1956. In 1958, he sent 15,000 U.S. troops to Lebanon to prevent the pro-Western government from falling to a Nasser-inspired revolution. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a summit meeting with the Soviets collapsed because of the U-2 incident.[4] In his 1961 farewell address to the nation, Eisenhower expressed his concerns about future dangers of massive military spending, especially deficit spending and government contracts to private military manufacturers, and coined the term “military–industrial complex“.

On the domestic front, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by openly invoking the modern expanded version of executive privilege. He otherwise left most political activity to his Vice President, Richard Nixon. He was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security.

Among his enduring innovations, he launched the Interstate Highway System; the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which led to the internet, among many invaluable outputs; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), driving peaceful discovery in space; the establishment of strong science education via the National Defense Education Act; and encouraging peaceful use of nuclear power via amendments to the Atomic Energy Act.[5]

In social policy, he sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, for the first time since Reconstruction to enforce federal court orders to desegregate public schools. He also signed civil rights legislation in 1957 and 1960 to protect the right to vote. He implemented desegregation of the armed forces in two years and made five appointments to the Supreme Court. He was the first term-limited president in accordance with the 22nd Amendment. Eisenhower’s two terms were peaceful ones for the most part and saw considerable economic prosperity except for a sharp recession in 1958–59. Eisenhower is often ranked highly among the U.S. presidents.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_D._Eisenhower

 

Definition:

Holocaust denial is the act of denying established facts concerning the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.[1][2] Holocaust denial includes any of the following claims: that the German Nazi government’s Final Solution policy aimed only at deporting Jews from the Reich, and included no policy to exterminate Jews; that Nazi authorities did not use extermination camps and gas chambers to mass murder Jews; and that the actual number of Jews killed was significantly (typically an order of magnitude) lower than the historically accepted figure of 5 to 6 million.[3][4][5]

Holocaust deniers generally do not accept the term denial as an appropriate description of their activities, and use the term revisionism instead.[6] Scholars use the term “denial” to differentiate Holocaust deniers from legitimate historical revisionists, who use established historical methodologies.[7] The methodologies of Holocaust deniers are criticized as based on a predetermined conclusion that ignores extensive historical evidence to the contrary.[8]

Most Holocaust denial claims imply, or openly state, that the Holocaust is a hoax arising out of a deliberate Jewish conspiracy to advance the interest of Jews at the expense of other peoples.[9] For this reason, Holocaust denial is considered to be an antisemitic[10] conspiracy theory,[11] and is frequently criticised.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holocaust_denial

History Heroes: Margaret Thatcher, Champion of Freedom

Dinner Topics for Thursday

 History Heroes—

Margaret Thatcher, Champion of Freedom

From Wikipedia

margaretthatcherkeyWhere there is discord, may we bring harmony. Where there is error, may we bring truth. Where there is doubt, may we bring faith. And where there is despair, may we bring hope.

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS, née Roberts (born 13 October 1925) is a British politician, the longest-serving (1979-1990) Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of the 20th century, and the only woman ever to have held the post. A Soviet journalist nicknamed her the “Iron Lady“, which became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented Conservative policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.

Originally a research chemist before becoming a barrister, Thatcher was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Finchley in 1959. Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his 1970 government. In 1975 Thatcher defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election and became Leader of the Opposition, as well as the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom. She became Prime Minister after winning the 1979 general election.

After entering 10 Downing Street, Thatcher introduced a series of political and economic initiatives to reverse what she perceived to be Britain’s precipitous national decline.[nb 1] Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation (particularly of the financial sector), flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies, and reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Thatcher’s popularity during her first years in office waned amid recession and high unemployment, until economic recovery and the 1982 Falklands War brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her re-election in 1983.

Thatcher was re-elected for a third term in 1987, but her Community Charge (popularly referred to as “poll tax”) was widely unpopular and her views on the European Community were not shared by others in her Cabinet. She resigned as Prime Minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership. Thatcher holds a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire, which entitles her to sit in the House of Lords.

Early political career

In the 1950 and 1951 general elections she was the Conservative candidate for the safe Labour seat of Dartford, where she attracted media attention as the youngest and the only female candidate.[23][24] She lost both times to Norman Dodds, but reduced the Labour majority by 6,000, and then a further 1,000.[23] (By an odd coincidence, Edward Heath was elected for the first time in the neighbouring constituency in 1950.) During the campaigns, she was supported by her parents and by Denis Thatcher, whom she married in December 1951.[23][25] Denis funded his wife’s studies for the bar;[26] she qualified as a barrister in 1953 and specialised in taxation.[27] That same year her twins, Carol and Mark, were born.[28]

Education Secretary (1970-1974)

The Conservative party under Edward Heath won the 1970 general election, and Thatcher was subsequently appointed Secretary of State for Education and Science. During her first months in office she attracted public attention as a result of the administration’s attempts to cut spending. She gave priority to academic needs in schools,[43] and imposed public expenditure cuts on the state education system, resulting in the abolition of free milk for schoolchildren aged seven to eleven.[44] She held that few children would suffer if schools were charged for milk, but she agreed to provide younger children with a third of a pint daily, for nutritional purposes.[44] Her decision provoked a storm of protest from the Labour party and the press,[45] leading to the moniker “Margaret Thatcher, Milk Snatcher”.[44] Thatcher wrote in her autobiography: “I learned a valuable lesson [from the experience]. I had incurred the maximum of political odium for the minimum of political benefit.”[45][46]

Thatcher’s term of office was marked by proposals for more local education authorities to close grammar schools and to adopt comprehensive secondary education. Although she was committed to a tiered secondary modern-grammar school system of education, and determined to preserve grammar schools,[43] during her tenure as Education Secretary she turned down only 326 of 3,612 proposals for schools to become comprehensives; the proportion of pupils attending comprehensive schools consequently rose from 32 per cent to 62 per cent.[47]

Prime Minister (1979-1990)

Thatcher became Prime Minister on 4 May 1979. Arriving at 10 Downing Street, she said, in a paraphrase of the “Prayer of Saint Francis“:

Where there is discord, may we bring harmony. Where there is error, may we bring truth. Where there is doubt, may we bring faith. And where there is despair, may we bring hope.

Privatisation

The policy of privatisation has been called “a crucial ingredient of Thatcherism”.[110] After the 1983 election the sale of state utilities accelerated;[111] more than £29 billion was raised from the sale of nationalised industries, and another £18 billion from the sale of council houses.[112]

The process of privatisation, especially the preparation of nationalised industries for privatisation, was associated with marked improvements in performance, particularly in terms of labour productivity.[113] Some of the privatised industries, including gas, water, and electricity, were natural monopolies for which privatisation involved little increase in competition. The privatised industries that demonstrated improvement often did so while still under state ownership. British Steel, for instance, made great gains in profitability while still a nationalised industry under the government-appointed chairmanship of Ian MacGregor, who faced down trade-union opposition to close plants and reduce the workforce by half.[114] Regulation was also significantly expanded to compensate for the loss of direct government control, with the foundation of regulatory bodies like Ofgas, Oftel and the National Rivers Authority.[115] There was no clear pattern to the degree of competition, regulation, and performance among the privatised industries;[113] in most cases privatisation benefitted consumers in terms of lower prices and improved efficiency, but the results overall were “mixed”.[116]

The privatisation of public assets was combined with financial deregulation in an attempt to fuel economic growth. Geoffrey Howe abolished Britain’s exchange controls in 1979, allowing more capital to be invested in foreign markets, and the Big Bang of 1986 removed many restrictions on the London Stock Exchange. The Thatcher government encouraged growth in the finance and service sectors to compensate for Britain’s ailing manufacturing industry.

Thatcher’s antipathy towards European integration became more pronounced during her premiership, particularly after her third election victory in 1987. During a 1988 speech in Bruges she outlined her opposition to proposals from the European Community (EC), forerunner of the European Union, for a federal structure and increased centralisation of decision making.[147] Thatcher and her party had supported British membership of the EC in the 1975 national referendum,[148] but she believed that the role of the organisation should be limited to ensuring free trade and effective competition, and feared that the EC’s approach was at odds with her views on smaller government and deregulation;[149] in 1988, she remarked, “We have not successfully rolled back the frontiers of the state in Britain, only to see them re-imposed at a European level, with a European super-state exercising a new dominance from Brussels”.[149] Thatcher was firmly opposed to the UK’s membership of the Exchange Rate Mechanism, a precursor to European monetary union, believing that it would constrain the British economy,[150] despite the urging of her Chancellor of the Exchequer Nigel Lawson and Foreign Secretary Geoffrey Howe,[151] but she was persuaded by John Major to join in October 1990, at what proved to be too high a rate.[152]

On 4 July 2011, Thatcher was to attend a ceremony for the unveiling of a 10-foot statue to former American President Ronald Reagan, outside the American Embassy but was unable to attend due to frail health.[216] On 31 July 2011 it was announced that her office in the House of Lords had been closed down.[217] Earlier in July 2011, Thatcher had been named the most competent British Prime Minister of the past 30 years in an Ipsos MORI poll.[218]

Honours

In the Falklands, Margaret Thatcher Day has been marked every 10 January since 1992,[246] commemorating her visit in 1983.[247][248] Thatcher Drive in Stanley is named for her, as is Thatcher Peninsula in South Georgia, where the task force troops first set foot on the Falklands.[246]

Thatcher has been awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honour awarded by the US.[249] She is a patron of The Heritage Foundation,[250] which established the Margaret Thatcher Center for Freedom in 2005.[251] Speaking of Heritage president Ed Feulner, at the first Clare Booth Luce lecture in September 1993, Thatcher said: “You didn’t just advise President Reagan on what he should do; you told him how he could do it. And as a practising politician I can testify that that is the only advice worth having.”[252]

Continued in Wikipedia